One of the longest surviving
mysteries of black holes is what happens to things when it drops inside.
Information cannot move quicker than light, so it cannot discharge from a black
hole, but we know that black holes contract and fade away over time, emitting
Hawking radiation. This has troubled researchers for more than 40 years.
Information cannot just vanish.

Now, physicists Chris Adami, from the University of Ottawa and Kamil Brádler, from Michigan State University, have been capable of showing that the information does not get lost, but is transported from the black holes into the above-mentioned Hawking radiation, possibly solving a long-surviving mystery of cosmology.

Black Holes took more than 40 years of exploration |

More than 40
years ago, Stephen Hawking proposed the idea that although nothing can come out
from a black hole, there should be a definite amount of particles produced from
the outer end of the black hole's event horizon. Over time, this emission would
take energy from a black hole, causing it to contract and fade away. The emission wasn’t from the
black hole itself, so scientists began to surprise what happens to the
information inside black holes when they vanish. If the information is forever
lost there would be a violation of the laws of quantum mechanics, and this
directed to the Black Hole Information Puzzle or Black Hole Information
paradox.

Adami said in a statement,
"The mystery was never left to rest because Hawking’s calculation was not
able to detect the influence that the radiation, called Hawking radiation, has
on the black hole itself. Physicists supposed that the black hole would shrink
in time as the Hawking radiation carries away the black hole’s mass, but no one
could prove this through scientific calculations."

Is Hawking radiation transmitting information out of black holes? NASA/JPL-Caltech |

Numerous solutions have been
put forward to solve the puzzle, but many physicists just supposed that it
would be solved when we had a broad theory of quantum gravity. Though general
relativity and quantum mechanics are two of humanity's greatest successes they
do not work fit together. Black holes are one of those problems in which both
theories are required. The model presented by Brádler and Adami looks at the
quantum effect that created Hawking radiation. They used computer simulations
to change the black holes, and they observed that the Hawking radiation was
stealing energy and information out of the black hole.

Chris Adami said, "To
perform these observations, we had to predict how a black hole interacts with
the Hawking radiation field that surrounds it. This is because there presently
is no theory of quantum gravity that could propose such an interaction. Still,
it appears we made a well-educated supposition because our model is the same to
Hawking’s theory in the boundary of fixed, unchanging black holes."

Their work, reported in Physical
Review Letters, is a fascinating breakthrough in understanding black holes.
Other groups are also trying to resolve the information paradox. But whereas it
does not tell us plenty about the upcoming theory of quantum gravity, it
indicates that this theory is there for us to learn.

Kamil Brádler said,
"While our model is just that, a model, we were capable of showing that
any quantum contact between black holes and Hawking radiation is very likely to
have the similar properties as our model."

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